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Wednesday, 27 April 2016

Ordering Cost

. Ordering Costs

Ordering costs are costs of ordering a new batch of raw materials. These include cost of placing a purchase order, costs of inspection of received batches, documentation costs, etc.

Ordering costs vary inversely with carrying costs. It means that the more orders a business places with its suppliers, the higher will be the ordering costs. However, more orders mean smaller average inventory levels and hence lower carrying costs.

It is important for a business to minimize the sum of these costs which it does by applying the economic order quantity model.

Example

AzerGas is a company engaged in gas distribution to households and businesses through its network of pipelines in Azerbaijan. The company expands its pipelines every now and then. Installation of pipelines involves use of specialized high quality pipes, customized valves and other spares and loose tools. AzerGas has only a few suppliers who produce these customized tools. Azerbaijani government regulations require the company to advertise in three national and two international newspapers before placing a purchase order. This will cost $200,000 per order. The suppliers have to modify their own production plans and they charge an amount of $2 million regardless of the size of order. The opportunity cost of staff time spent on drafting the tender documents is estimated at $250,000. Related legal costs are $50,000. In each procurement AzerGas hires a firm for inspection at a flat fee of $100,000. Bank charges an amount of $3,000 as documentation charges.

In this situation, AzerGas ordering costs are $2,603,000 per order (advertisement costs of $200,000 + customization cost of $2,000,000 + opportunity cost of staff time of $250,000 + legal costs of $50,000 + inspection costs of $100,000 + bank charges of $3,000).

Since there are constant improvements in the related technology, the most significant related carrying cost is obsolescence. Other carrying costs which AzerGas would have to trade-off against the ordering costs include the opportunity cost of capital tied up in the expensive tools, the cost of wear and tear of the tools, etc.

Thursday, 21 April 2016

New Male Birth Control Hopes To Prevent Sperm Motility By Targeting Enzyme In Testes

Sperm

The pill and the condom, whether used separately or in combination, have been the most popular method of contraception for men and women for decades. The efficacy of the pill and condoms range from 92 to 98 percent, respectively, but with side effects. Synthetic hormones in the pill can have very real side effects on the body, while condoms can be prone to slippage and breakage.
Now, a study published in the journal Protein Expression and Purification suggests science is one step closer to developing a non-hormonal male birth control pill — without the side effects.
“The challenge in developing a new contraceptive is that a male ‘pill’ will be taken by perfectly healthy men,” said John Herr, author of the study and a cell biologist at the University of Virginia School of Medicine, in the statement.
He added: “Because of this fact, a male contraceptive drug should be very precise in its mechanism of action, without any off-target side-effects on molecules with similar properties located in other organs.”
To develop a non-hormonal male contraceptive drug, Herr and his colleagues managed to isolate and manufacture an enzyme known as spermatids (TSSK2) which are exclusively found in the testes, and involved only during the very last stage of sperm production. The researchers sought to target this particular enzyme to inhibit its function as sperm is made, and essentially, prevent egg fertilization. This will improve the likelihood that targeting the enzyme will have effects nowhere else in the body.
Similarly this month, researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago, have developed an injectable non-hormonal and reversible male birth control gel, Vasalgel, that will prevent the sperm from getting through the vas deferens — the duct that conveys sperm from the testes to the urethra. Once the birth control is injected, the material forms a hydrogel, remaining in a gel-like, soft state that can flex to the walls of the vas deferentia. Although water soluble molecules can pass through, it blocks larger structures, like sperm. Researchers suspect it could lower the occurrence of hydrostatic pressure, or the back pressure in sperm productionareas. Vasalgel is expected to be on the market as soon as 2018.
Herr admits much work remains to be done with his drug, but he remains hopeful based on the recent breakthrough.
"We're on the path toward the male contraceptive drug, and this is a noteworthy benchmark along that path,” he said.
Previously, Herr developed SpermCheck, a home fertility test for men that is sold in pharmacies and stores around the world. A positive test result means a man’s sperm count is at least 20 million per milliliter. Typically, about 90 percent of fertile men have sperm counts above 20 million per milliliter, which are counts needed for conception. A negative test indicates sperm count is less than 20 million per milliliter. On average, 10 percent of fertile men have sperm counts below this mark, meaning a negative test is not 100 percent definitive.
New male contraceptives and home fertility tests are all part of the evolving contraceptive revolution — with the pill no longer being only synonymous with women, but with men too.

Your Brain On Science And Religion: Non-Believers Report Same Personality Traits As Psychopaths

coldhearted

The neurons in your brain work in coordinated networks, with some mental webs enabling critical thinking, others encouraging empathy. Given a science problem, then, the brain’s analytical network will activate as it simultaneously suppresses the social network. A new study, presented as a series of linked experiments, explores this fundamental conflict between thinking and feeling. The more empathetic you are, the more likely you will be religious, the researchers discovered, while on the flip side, if you tend to be analytic, you are more likely to find the concept of a higher power difficult to swallow.
“Analytic thinking and moral concern represent two cognitive modes which our neural architecture causes to be in competition with each other,” conclude the Case Western Reserve University and Babson College researchers.
However, their results also suggest a darker side to our thinking brains. In terms of a general personality profile, the non-religious are aligned with the psychopaths, reporting higher levels of self-centered impulsivity and coldheartedness than their faithful peers.

Higher Power

Previously, Dr. Tony Jack, an associate professor of philosophy, used MRI scans to reveal two opposing domains within the human brain. Looking back at his past research, Jack considered the many instances in life where an ambiguous situation does not automatically inspire you to respond one way or another — either analytically or empathically. In these ambiguous circumstances, he theorized, your natural tendencies decide which network you activate. Hypothesizing religion provides just such an ambiguous context, Jack enlisted the help of his colleagues in order to explore.
The research team designed eight linked experiments, each involving between 159 and 527 adults, to investigate potential connections between belief, analytic thinking, and moral concern. In the first experiment, participants completed surveys measuring mechanical reasoning, empathic concern, critical reasoning, and also beliefs. Sample items on the empathy test included: “I often have tender, concerned feelings for people less fortunate than me.” Analyzing the data, the researchers found belief positively correlated with empathy yet negatively correlated with critical thinking and mechanical reasoning. In other words,believers tended to score high on empathy and low on critical thinking and mechanical reasoning. And, those with high empathy marks earned low points in critical thinking.
While the experiments suggest the faithful are not as smart as the atheists, they also revealed the more religious the person, the more moral concern they showed (though the researchers did not establish cause and effect).
“In every study we found that a central aspect of moral concern, empathic concern, significantly predicted religious and spiritual belief,” wrote the authors.

Mentalizing

Four of the studies highlighted mentalizing: interpreting behavior in terms of intentional mental states such as needs, desires, or purposes. To gauge mentalizing, the studies included self-report measures, performance-based measures, and an indirect self-report measure of loneliness. Analyzing the results, the researcher found belief and mentalizing do not coexist.
Alternatively, the researchers say “non-believers have personality profiles more closely associated with the psychopathic phenotype (i.e., deficits in moral concern) than with the autism phenotype (i.e., deficits in mentalizing).” To support this finding, they refer to a 2014 published survey that found non-believers reported “higher levels of psychopathic traits,namely self-centered impulsivity and coldheartedness, than do religious believers.”   
In the end, Jack and his colleagues suggest no one has to live in an either/or world. We can exercise both empathy and critical thinking simply by recognizing this is how the brain operates. Although our neural networks may sacrifice one for the other, we do not have to do the same.

Shooting down drones is a federal crime says FAA

Shooting down drones is a federal crime says FAA

United States aviation authority says drone shooting is a federal crime

The drone industry and drone lovers in United States will love this news. The aviation watchdog in United States of America has said that shooting down drones is a federal crime. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) confirmed last week that it is federal crime to shoot down aircraft, which includes drones too. At least, 12 drones have been shot out of the sky in five U.S. states
John Goglia from Forbes confirmed this with the FAA. According to the FAA, “regardless of the situation, shooting at any aircraft — including unmanned aircraft — poses a significant safety hazard. An unmanned aircraft hit by gunfire could crash, causing damage to persons or property on the ground, or it could collide with other objects in the air. ”
Goglia explains the FAA offered this ruling in response to his questions on the topic, citing 18 USC. 32, which “makes it a felony to damage or destroy an aircraft.”
However, for his own part, Goglia asks why the FAA hasn’t yet acted on 18 USC. 32, particularly given the increasing frequency of human-on-drone violence. “It’s time the United States put an end to these dangerous acts and criminally prosecuted those who shoot at unmanned aircraft,” Goglia writes. Justifying his point: Back in October, a judge exonerated a Kentucky man who had shot down a drone that flew over his backyard.
So what does this mean? This means that unless the FAA changes their minds about the law in question, shooting down a drone could likely see the culprit face up to 20 years in prison. However, if this opinion holds up in court, it raises questions about how will people protect themselves in the event that a drone threatens their privacy? Well, it looks like those decisions may have to wait until there’s a case that creates legal precedent.

Microsoft, Apple, Facebook and Google attack United Kingdom for its hacking law

Microsoft, Apple, Facebook and Google attack United Kingdom for its hacking law

United Kingdom lambasted by Apple, Google, Facebook, Yahoo and Microsoft over its proposed hacking law

In a rare bonhomie the three tech giants came together to criticize United Kingdom’s new hacking law. Apple, Microsoft, Google and Facebook criticized plans by the UK government for a new law that would allow government authorities and law enforcement agencies to hack computer systems to access data.
According to the provisions of the draft Investigatory Powers Bill, government authorities and law enforcement agencies like intelligence and security services, police and the armed forces would be free to hack into devices belonging to Britons and visitors to United Kingdom to obtain data, such as communications, when they have a warrant to do so.
The draft bill has been pilloried by netizens on social network however, the government argues that the hacking provisions – part of the wider internet surveillance legislation – are needed so that law enforcement can intercept the communications of criminals even when they are encrypted.
However the gang of four tech companies have put together a warning saying that the plan would set a dangerous precedent that would be followed by other countries, will damage trust in their services and may be impossible to implement anyway.
The tech giants have issued a joint submission to the committee of MP’s overseeing the nitty gritties of the bill before it is submitted before the UK’s parliament for vote.
In the joint submission, Facebook, Google, Microsoft, Twitter and Yahoo state that, “To the extent this could involve the introduction of risks or vulnerabilities into products or services, it would be a very dangerous precedent to set, and we would urge your government to reconsider.”
“We urge the government to make clear that actions taken under authorization do not introduce new risks or vulnerabilities for users or businesses” they said.
In its submission Apple said the plans would put tech companies in a very difficult position. “For the consumer in, say, Germany, this might represent hacking of their data by an Irish business on behalf of the UK state under a bulk warrant – activity which the provider is not even allowed to confirm or deny. Maintaining trust in such circumstances will be extremely difficult.”
All the tech companies have warned that the bill if passed by UK’s parliament would spell doom for, “if followed by other countries, could endanger the privacy and security of users in the UK and elsewhere.”


UK’s largest mobile operator, Vodafone also joined the anti bill bandwagon. It warned that equipment interference elements are perhaps the most contentious of all the powers within the scope of the draft bill.
“The obligations relating to equipment interference have the potential to significantly undermine trust in the United Kingdom’s communications service providers”, it warned.
Firefox maker Mozilla warned that the “bulk systems intrusion” provisions in the bill could be used to “compel a software developer, like Mozilla, to ship hostile software, essentially malware, to a user — or many users — without notice.”

This hacker made Amazon’s Alexa, Google Now, and Apple’s Siri talk to each other


This hacker made Amazon's Alexa, Google Now, and Apple's Siri talk to each other

This hacker made Amazon’s Alexa talk to Google’s Now and make it activate Apple’s Siri

What could be better than asking just one voice assistant to call upon the others? In other words, what if we could make them all talk to one another?
An enterprising developer by the name of Leon Nicholls recently activated Siri on an iPhone by going through three different voice-enabled assistants first. Using Amazon’s recently released Alexa voice-command system, a naughty chain of command was created between Amazon’s Alexa, Google Now, and Apple’s Siri.
First, Nicholls used a Raspberry Pi loaded with Amazon’s Alexa Skills Kit, a collection of tools that allows users program new features into the voice service. Then, he starts off by activating voice commands on his Raspberry Pi and he asks it to “Ask Alexa how to use Siri.”
“Alexa, ask Google how to enable ‘Hey Siri,’” says the Raspberry Pi.
“Okay Google,” Amazon’s black cylinder replies, using keywords that activate a Google Nexus 6P phone at its base. “How do I enable ‘Hey Siri’?” asks the Amazon Echo.
The phone pauses to search for an answer on Google.
“According to MacWorld, the next time you summon Siri with a command by either holding down on the home button or by calling out ‘Hey Siri!’ when your iOS device is plugged in, you’ll be prompted with a setup screen,” replies Google Now.
An iPhone 6S takes a moment to recognize the call. It wakes up, asking no person or device in particular, “Yes?”
As the Siri is left hanging, the conversation reaches a dead end.
While it is amusing to see companies who are vying for a share of the nascent market for its virtual assistants, it will equally interesting to see what other tricks people can come up with when using all these different services together.

Opera becomes the first web browser to offer a built-in VPN service


Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) have become an important tool not just for large companies, but also for individuals to improve web privacy, dodge content restrictions and counter growing threat of cyber attacks.

Opera has released an updated desktop version of its web browser with a Free built-in VPN serviceto keep you safe on the Internet with just a click.
For those unfamiliar, VPNs are easy security and privacy tools that route your Internet traffic through a distant connection, protecting your browsing, hiding your location data and accessing restricted resources.

Free VPN Service with Unlimited Data Usage


Unlike several other free VPN services, Opera's built-in free VPN service will offer you unlimited data usage as well. You just have to turn on a virtual switch in the Settings menu to enable the feature.

So you required to install no third-party extensions, pay no monthly fee as well as set no limit on data usage.
"By adding a free, unlimited VPN directly into the browser, no additional download or extensions from an unknown third-party provider are necessary," Opera's engineering chief Krystian Kolondra wrote in a blog post.
"So, today, our Opera desktop users get a handy way to boost their online privacy, as well as easier access to all their favorite online content no matter where they are."

Opera's Free VPN service uses 256-bit encryption to hide all your connection details and replaces your IP address with a virtual one, making it difficult for the government or anyone to trace your location, identify your computer or block content they do not want you to see.

The free VPN feature in Opera has been made possible after the company acquired VPN providerSurfEasy last year.

Here's How to Try Opera's Free VPN


To give Opera's Free VPN a try, install the latest developer version of Opera for Windows and Mac, look for the 'Privacy & Security' tab and toggle this feature ON.

Since Operas Free VPN service is available in the latest developer version of Opera, the service lets you switch between three virtual locations: The United States, Canada, and Germany.
However, the company says it will add more countries in the stable version of its browser.


Saturday, 16 April 2016

Live Cricket Score, KKR vs SRH, IPL 2016: KKR to chase SRH’s 142/7 for win in Hyderabad

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KKR take on SRH in the IPL 2016 contest in Hyderabad on Saturday. While KKR have won one and lost one, SRH lost their opening encounter against RCB. Plenty at stakes as both teams would want to get back to winning ways in the first afternoon fixture of the 2016 edition of the Indian Premier League. Catch live cricket scores and live cricket updates from the IPL 2016 match here. (PHOTOS: Ziva’s adorable moment with daddy Dhoni)
Live Cricket Scorecard: KKR vs SRH, IPL 2016 (CLICK HERE)
Live Cricket Updates: KKR vs SRH, IPL 2016
1735 hrs IST: IPL 2016: SRH post 142/7 against KKR in Hyderabad. (Morgan 51, Ojha 37; Umesh 3/28)
1732 hrs IST: WICKET! Sharp work in the deep and Reddy falls short of his ground. Run-out. SRH 141/7
1727 hrs IST: Umesh has bowled well today. Mixing it up nicely in the middle and unleashing the effort ball here and then. Ends with figures of 3/28
1726 hrs IST: WICKET! Morgan hits the Umesh delivery straight to Shakib in the deep. 128/6
1722 hrs IST: SIX! Short, and Morgan hits it way back into the stands. Brings up his FIFTY – top knock under pressure
1719 hrs IST: WICKET! Excellent teamwork by Chawla and Russell in the deep ends Ojha’s innings. SRH 117/5
1715 hrs IST: SIX! Morgan goes straight, goes big. Ends a good Shakib over with a maximum. SRH 115/4 after 17 overs
1710 hrs IST: Four to play, SRH are 105/4. Two set batsman in the middle, they should eye 150 from here now
1709 hrs IST: SIX! Short and wide from Morkel, and Ojha gives it a whack. Brings up the 100 for SRH
1707 hrs IST: On return, Narine goes wicketless to end with figures of 0/26
1704 hrs IST: SIX! Narine into the attack and he concedes a maximum early in the over. First six of the match. SRH have momentum on their side now, important they make most of it

Monday, 11 April 2016

25 Amazing Cricket Facts That'll Blow Your Mind

1. Shahid Afridi used Sachin Tendulkar's bat to hit the fastest ever ODI centuryShahid Afridi

Getty Images
Shahid Afridi was flown in to play for the Pakistan team from West Indies to Nairobi in 1996 and didn't have a proper bat. That's when Waqar Younis gave 'Young Afridi' Sachin Tendulkar’s bat. Afridi hit 11 sixes and six boundaries with the bat and scored a 37-ball century against Sri Lanka which was the then fastest ODI century. The record, broken later by Corey Anderson (36 balls), now belongs to South Africa's AB de Villiers (31 balls). 

2. Chris Gayle is the only batsman to hit a six off the first ball of a Test matchChris Gayle

AFP
In the 137 years of Test cricket no cricketer has ever hit a six off the first ball of a Test match. Audacious Chris Gayle achieved this feat against Bangladesh in 2012 off debutant Sohag Gazi.

3. Abbas Ali Baig was the first Indian cricketer to be kissed during a Test matchAbbas Ali Baig
BCCL
When Abbas Ali Baig reached a half-century in the third Test match against Australia at the Brabourne Stadium in 1960, a pretty young girl ran all the way from the North Stand to greet the batsman. She kissed Baig on his cheek.

4. Vinod Kambli's Test match average is better than his childhood friend Sachin Tendulkar

Vinod Kambli Sachin Tendulkar
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Vinod Kambli played only 17 Test matches which included two back to back double tons. Kambli’s Test average is 54.20 while his childhood friend Sachin Tendulkar averages 53.78 after 200 Tests.

5. Sunil Gavaskar was out off the first ball of a Test match thrice in his careerSunil Gavaskar

Getty Images
Sunil Gavaskar was the first batsman to reach 10,000 Test runs and he ended his career scoring 34 Test centuries. But did you know he was out three times off the first ball of a Test? The bowlers to dismiss him were: Geoff Arnold (Edgbaston, 1974), Malcolm Marshall (Kolkata, 1984) and Imran Khan (Jaipur, 1987). 

6. ML Jaisimha and Ravi Shastri are the only Indians to bat on all five days of a Test

M L Jaisimha and Ravi Shastri
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7. The only cricketer to play Test cricket for India and England is Saif Ali Khan’s grandfather, Iftikhar Ali Khan Pataudi

Ifthikar Ali Khan Pataudi
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8. Lala Amarnath is the only bowler to dismiss Don Bradman hit wicket in Test cricket

Lala Amarnath
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This happened in the 1948 Brisbane Test.

9. There's an uncanny similarity between the Indo-Pak match at the Australasia Cup of 1986 and Asia Cup 2014

Pakistan vs India
Facebook Page: Tsunamiofimran

10. India won the 1983 World Cup and won their first ever Test at Lord’s three years later in 1986.

India won their second World Cup 28 years later in 2011 and remarkably won their second ever Test at Lord’s three years later in 2014.

Lord's 1986 and 2014
Facebook: Filmygyan

11. India is the only country to win the 60-Over, 50-Over and 20-Over World Cup

India World Cup 2011
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12. Alec Stewart was born on 8-4-63 and he scored 8463 Test runsAlec Stewart

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13. Asif Karim of Kenya has played International cricket and Davis Cup (Tennis) for his countryAsif Karim

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14. Wilfred Rhodes of England played Test cricket till he was 52!Wilfred Rhodes

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15. Allan Border played 153 consecutive Test matchesAllan Border

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16. The only Indian Test cricketer to be knighted is Maharaja of VizianagaramMaharaja of Vizianagram
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17. Australia beat England by 45 runs in the first ever cricket Test as well as the Centenary Test in 1977Centenary Test

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Australia beat England in the first ever Test match by 45 runs held at the Melbourne Cricket Ground in 1877. Hundred years later the opposition were the same, the venue was the same and the result as well!

18. All four innings of a test on the same day

Lord's Test 2000
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The 2000 Lord's Test between England and West Indies saw all the four innings being played on the same day. This feat was repeated 11 years later in the famous Cape Town Test where South Africa bowled out Australia for 47. 

19. There's only one person who witnessed Jim Laker and Anil Kumble taking 10 wickets in an innings

Anil Kumble
Getty Images
As a 10-year-old Richard Stokes witnessed Jim Laker taking all 10 wickets in the 1956 Old Trafford Test against Australia. Forty-three years later he was in India watching the India vs Pakistan Test and saw Anil Kumble taking all the 10 wickets in an innings. These were the only two Tests Stokes has watched in his life. 

20. On the morning of 11/11/11 South Africa needed 111 runs to win at 11:11

South Africa vs Australia
Quora
This coincidence occurred during the first Test between South Africa and Australia at Cape Town. At 11:11, on 11/11/11, South Africa were 125 for 1 needing a further 111 runs for a win. 

21. Peter Siddle is the only bowler to take a hat-trick on his birthdayPeter Siddle

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Peter Siddle remains the only bowler in international cricket to take a hat-trick on his birthday. This happened during the Brisbane Test against England on November 25, 2010. 

22. India's Mohinder Amarnath is the only cricketer to be dismissed for handling the ball and obstructing the field

Mohinder Amarnath
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23. West Indies' Leslie Hylton is the only cricketer to be hanged for murderLeslie Hylton

ESPNCricinfo

24. Two Robin Singhs have played Test cricket for India and both never got to play after their debut Test

Robin Singh
Getty Images
Robin Singh - India's one-day specialist played one Test match in his career against Zimbabwe in 1998. His namesake Robin Singh junior was a fast bowler who played his only Test against New Zealand in 1999. 

25. Sachin Tendulkar played for Pakistan before IndiaSachin Tendulkar

Getty Images
Can you imagine Sachin Tendulkar playing for Pakistan before India? This happened during a practice match between India and Pakistan at the Brabourne Stadium in 1987 where Tendulkar came on the field as a substitute fielder for Pakistan.
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Saturday, 9 April 2016

Mayadari Malligadu Leaked Scenes OMG....!!


Janatha Garage Leaked Scenes NTR making